Since the 1990s, the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) PID expert committee (EC), now called Inborn Errors of Immunity Committee, has published every other year a classification of the inborn errors of immunity.
Lymphocyte differentiation is regulated by coordinated actions of cytokines and signaling pathways. IL-21 activates STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 and is fundamental for the differentiation of human B cells into memory cells and antibody-secreting cells. While STAT1 is largely nonessential and STAT3 is critical for this process, the role of STAT5 is unknown.
International registries provide opportunities to describe use of biologics for treating severe asthma in current clinical practice. Our aims were to describe real-life global patterns of biologic use (continuation, switches, and discontinuations) for severe asthma, elucidate reasons underlying these patterns, and examine associated patient-level factors.
Regulatory bodies have approved five biologics for severe asthma. However, regional differences in accessibility may limit the global potential for personalized medicine.
The introduction of personalized medicine (PM) has been a milestone in the history of medical therapy, because it has revolutionized the previous approach of treating the disease with that of treating the patient.
Cough features a complex peripheral and central neuronal network. The function of the chemosensitive and stretch (afferent) cough receptors is well described but partly understood. It is speculated that chronic cough reflects a neurogenic inflammation of the cough reflex, which becomes hypersensitive.
Genetic variants within nearly 1000 loci are known to contribute to modulation of blood lipid levels. However, the biological pathways underlying these associations are frequently unknown, limiting understanding of these findings and hindering downstream translational efforts such as drug target discovery.
Different treatments exist for allergic rhinitis (AR), including pharmacotherapy and allergen immunotherapy (AIT), but they have not been compared using direct patient data (i.e., "real-world data"). We aimed to compare AR pharmacological treatments on (i) daily symptoms, (ii) frequency of use in co-medication, (iii) visual analogue scales (VASs) on allergy symptom control considering the minimal important difference (MID) and (iv) the effect of AIT.
The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 (GBD 2019) provided systematic estimates of incidence, morbidity, and mortality to inform local and international efforts toward reducing cancer burden.
Chronic cough can be triggered by respiratory and non-respiratory tract illnesses originating mainly from the upper and lower airways, and the GI tract (ie, reflux). Recent findings suggest it can also be a prominent feature in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), laryngeal hyperresponsiveness, and COVID-19. The
Chronic cough management necessitates a clear integrated care pathway approach. Primary care physicians initially encounter the majority of chronic cough patients, yet their role in proper management can prove challenging due to limited access to advanced diagnostic testing. A multidisciplinary approach involving otolaryngologists and chest physicians, allergists, and gastroenterologists, among others, is central to the optimal diagnosis and treatment of conditions which underly or worsen cough.
Cold urticaria (ColdU), that is, the occurrence of wheals or angioedema in response to cold exposure, is classified into typical and atypical forms. The diagnosis of typical ColdU relies on whealing in response to local cold stimulation testing (CST). It can also manifest with cold-induced anaphylaxis (ColdA). We aimed to determine risk factors for ColdA in typical ColdU.
The COVID-19 pandemic dramatically disrupts health care around the globe. The impact of the pandemic on chronic urticaria (CU) and its management are largely unknown.
There is no information regarding the pattern of inpatient referrals to drug allergy units in Kuwait. Objectives. The main goal of this study is to clarify the pattern of inpatient referrals to a drug allergy unit in terms of incidence, drugs implicated and allergy evaluation outcomes in comparison with studies in other countries.
One of the major concerns in the practice of allergy is related to the safety of procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. Management (diagnosis and treatment) of hypersensitivity disorders involves often intentional exposure to potentially allergenic substances (during skin testing), deliberate induction in the office of allergic symptoms to offending compounds (provocation tests) or intentional application of potentially dangerous substances (allergy vaccine) to sensitized patients.
The recombination-activating genes (RAG) 1 and 2 are indispensable for diversifying the primary B cell receptor repertoire and pruning self-reactive clones via receptor editing in the bone marrow; however, the impact of RAG1/RAG2 on peripheral tolerance is unknown.
Beginning in 1970, a committee was constituted under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO) to catalog primary immunodeficiencies.
Drug repurposing is a major field of value-added medicine. It involves investigating and evaluating existing drugs for new therapeutic purposes that address unmet healthcare needs. Several unmet needs in allergic rhinitis could be improved by drug repurposing. This could be game-changing for disease management.
To compare different variables among (S)CID patients diagnosed in the USA and Kuwait.
Defects in DNA Recombination due to mutations in RAG1/2 or DCLRE1C result in combined immunodeficiency (CID) with a range of disease severity. We present the clinical, immunologic and molecular characteristics of 21 patients with defects in RAG1, RAG2 or DCLRE1C, who accounted for 24% of combined immune deficiency cases in the Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders Registry.