Fasting during Ramadan is one of the five pillars of Islam and is obligatory for all healthy Muslims from the age of puberty. Though individuals with some illness and serious medical conditions, including some people with diabetes, can be exempted from fasting, many will fast anyway.
Increased blood lipid levels are heritable risk factors of cardiovascular disease with varied prevalence worldwide owing to different dietary patterns and medication use1. Despite advances in prevention and treatment, in particular through reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels2, heart disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide3.
Ramadan fasting is one of the five pillars of Islam and is compulsory for all healthy Muslims from puberty onwards. Exemptions exist for people with serious medical conditions, including many with diabetes, but a large number will participate, often against medical advice. Ensuring the optimal care of these patients during Ramadan is crucial.
Common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are predicted to collectively explain 40-50% of phenotypic variation in human height, but identifying the specific variants and associated regions requires huge sample sizes1.
A major challenge of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) is to translate phenotypic associations into biological insights. Here, we integrate a large GWAS on blood lipids involving 1.6 million individuals from five ancestries with a wide array of functional genomic datasets to discover regulatory mechanisms underlying lipid associations.
Chronic inflammatory airway diseases, including asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, eosinophilic COPD and allergic rhinitis are a global health concern. Despite the coexistence of these diseases and their common pathophysiology, they are often managed independently, resulting in poor asthma control, continued symptoms and poor quality of life.
Chronic urticaria (CU) affects about 1% of the world population of all ages, mostly young and middle-aged women. It usually lasts for several years (> 1 year in 25-75% of patients) and often takes > 1 year before effective management is implemented.
The World Health Organization estimates that 71 million people worldwide have chronic hepatitis C viral infection. A major challenge is overall lack of public awareness of hepatitis C, particularly among infected people of their infection status.
The efficacy and safety of prone positioning is unclear in nonintubated patients with acute hypoxemia and COVID-19.
Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends.
Fasting the Holy month of Ramadan constitutes one of the five pillars of the Muslim faith. Although there is some evidence that intermittent fasting during Ramadan may be of benefit in losing weight and cardiometabolic risk factors, there is no strong evidence these benefits apply to people with diabetes.
Locked-in syndrome (LIS) is a neurological disorder in which there is damage to the ventral pons and caudal midbrain. An ischemic cause, such as basilar artery occlusion, can often lead to LIS. LIS has three subtypes: classical, partial, and total. There is loss of motion in the four extremities in classical LIS, loss of horizontal gaze, and aphasia.
Inflammation has profound but poorly understood effects on metabolism, especially in the context of obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we report that hepatic interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is a direct transcriptional regulator of glucose homeostasis through induction of Ppp2r1b, a component of serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A, and subsequent suppression of glucose production.
Phenotypic characteristics of patients with eosinophilic and noneosinophilic asthma are not well characterized in global, real-life severe asthma cohorts.
Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries.
Glomerulonephritides (GN) are relatively rare kidney diseases with substantial morbidity and mortality. They are often difficult to treat, sometimes with no cure, and can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end stage kidney disease (ESKD).
While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study used methods to provide highly detailed estimates of global injury burden that meet these criteria.
To assess the effects of early management of hyperglycaemia with antidiabetic drugs plus lifestyle intervention compared with lifestyle alone, on microvascular function in adults with pre-diabetes.
Older adults, especially men and/or those with diabetes, hypertension, and/or obesity, are prone to severe COVID-19. In some countries, older adults, particularly those residing in nursing homes, have been prioritized to receive COVID-19 vaccines due to high risk of death. In very rare instances, the COVID-19 vaccines can induce anaphylaxis, and the management of anaphylaxis in older people should be considered carefully.