Lactose is the main carbohydrate in human and mammalian milk. Lactose requires enzymatic hydrolysis by lactase into D-glucose and D-galactose before it can be absorbed. Term infants express sufficient lactase to digest about one liter of breast milk daily. Physiological lactose malabsorption in infancy confers beneficial prebiotic effects, including the establishment of Bifidobacterium-rich fecal microbiota. In many populations, lactase levels decline after weaning (lactase non-persistence; LNP)
We report the updated classification of inborn errors of immunity, compiled by the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee. This report documents the key clinical and laboratory features of 55 novel monogenic gene defects, and 1 phenocopy due to autoantibodies, that have either been discovered since the previous update (published January 2020) or were characterized earlier but have since been confirmed or expanded in subsequent studies.
Since 2013, the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) expert committee (EC) on Inborn Errors of Immunity (IEI) has published an updated phenotypic classification of IEI, which accompanies and complements their genotypic classification into ten tables.
ncreased blood lipid levels are heritable risk factors of cardiovascular disease with varied prevalence worldwide owing to different dietary patterns and medication use1. Despite advances in prevention and treatment, in particular through reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels2, heart disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide
The International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) expert committee (EC) on Inborn Errors of Immunity (IEI) reports here the 2022 updated phenotypic classification, which accompanies and complements the most-recent genotypic classification.
Chronic inflammatory airway diseases, including asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, eosinophilic COPD and allergic rhinitis are a global health concern. Despite the coexistence of these diseases and their common pathophysiology, they are often managed independently, resulting in poor asthma control, continued symptoms and poor quality of life.
Members of the European Network for Drug Allergy and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology interested in drug allergy participated in an online questionnaire on pre-vaccination screening and management of allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines, and literature was analysed.
Chronic urticaria (CU) affects about 1% of the world population of all ages, mostly young and middle-aged women. It usually lasts for several years (> 1 year in 25-75% of patients) and often takes > 1 year before effective management is implemented. It presents as chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), chronic inducible urticaria (CIndU) or both in the same person.
Clinical outcome upon infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) ranges from silent infection to lethal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
The most recent updated classification of inborn errors of immunity/primary immunodeficiencies, compiled by the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee, was published in January 2020. Within days of completing this report, it was already out of date, evidenced by the frequent publication of genetic variants proposed to cause novel inborn errors of immunity.
Patient care in the allergy and respiratory fields is advancing rapidly, offering the possibility of the inclusion of a variety of digital tools that aim to improve outcomes of care. Impaired access to several health care facilities during the COVID-19 pandemic has considerably increased the appetite and need for the inclusion of e-health tools amongst end-users.
A major challenge of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) is to translate phenotypic associations into biological insights. Here, we integrate a large GWAS on blood lipids involving 1.6 million individuals from five ancestries with a wide array of functional genomic datasets to discover regulatory mechanisms underlying lipid associations.
Older adults, especially men and/or those with diabetes, hypertension, and/or obesity, are prone to severe COVID-19. In some countries, older adults, particularly those residing in nursing homes, have been prioritized to receive COVID-19 vaccines due to high risk of death. In very rare instances, the COVID-19 vaccines can induce anaphylaxis, and the management of anaphylaxis in older people should be considered carefully.
Allergy risk has become a significant public health issue with increasing prevalence. Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first six months of life, but this recommendation is poorly adhered to in many parts of the world, including the Middle-East region, putting infants at risk of developing allergic sensitization and disorders.
Phenotypic characteristics of patients with eosinophilic and noneosinophilic asthma are not well characterized in global, real-life severe asthma cohorts.
We report the updated classification of Inborn Errors of Immunity/Primary Immunodeficiencies, compiled by the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee. This report documents the key clinical and laboratory features of 430 inborn errors of immunity, including 64 gene defects that have either been discovered in the past 2 years since the previous update
Hyper IgE syndromes (HIESs) are a group of rare inborn errors of immunity with a triad of eczema, increase susceptibility to sinopulmonary and skin infections with high level of IgE serum. Although most of HIESs are sporadic, hereditary types of these disorders have been studied well.
We report the results of clinical exome sequencing (CES) on >2,200 previously unpublished Saudi families as a first-tier test. The predominance of autosomal-recessive causes allowed us to make several key observations.
The HLH-2004 criteria are used to diagnose hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), yet concern exists for their misapplication, resulting in suboptimal treatment of some patients. We sought to define the genomic spectrum and associated outcomes of a diverse cohort of children who met the HLH-2004 criteria.
Asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis (AD) are interrelated clinical phenotypes that partly overlap in the human interactome. The concept of "one-airway-one-disease," coined over 20 years ago, is a simplistic approach of the links between upper- and lower-airway allergic diseases. With new data, it is time to reassess the concept.