Update on imaging in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder: promising role of functional imaging



Disorders of mineral metabolism and bone disease are common complications in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Bone biopsies, bone scintigraphy, biochemical markers, and plain films have been used to assess bone disorders and bone turnover. Of these, functional imaging is less invasive than bone/marrow sampling, more specific than serum markers and is therefore ideally placed to assess total skeletal metabolism. 18F-sodium fluoride (NaF) PET/CT is an excellent bone-seeking agent superior to conventional bone scan in CKD patients due to its high bone uptake, rapid single-pass extraction, and minimal binding to serum proteins. Due to these properties, 18F-NaF can better assess the skeletal metabolism on primary diagnosis and following treatment in CKD patients. With the increased accessibility of PET scanners, it is likely that PET scanning with bone-specific tracers such as 18F-NaF will be used more regularly for clinical assessment and quantitation of bone kinetics. This article describes the pattern of scintigraphic/functional appearances secondary to musculoskeletal alterations that might occur in patients with CKD.

Keywords: 18F-NaF PET/CT; Chronic kidney disease; Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder; Renal dialysis.




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