Hyper IgE syndromes: A clinical approach



Hyper IgE syndromes (HIESs) are a group of rare inborn errors of immunity with a triad of eczema, increase susceptibility to sinopulmonary and skin infections with high level of IgE serum. Although most of HIESs are sporadic, hereditary types of these disorders have been studied well. There are several distinct immunodeficiency disorders which are phenotypically similar to HIES, and thus make the diagnosis of HIES challenging. In fact, the diagnosis of HIES is typically based on the clinical suspicion and immunological assessments. There is yet no specific curative treatment for most of HIESs at present, and the treatments are mostly standing on early diagnosis and preventive therapies. For instance, the genetic diagnosis is an important module, while, due to DOCK8 mutations, the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is necessary for patients with autosomal recessive form of HIESs. Herein, we overview HIESs, highlight their peculiar clinical and laboratory features, and finally suggest a practical forthright diagnostic chart for clinical purposes.

Keywords: Eczema; High level IgE serum; Hyper IgE syndromes; Infection; Primary immunodeficiency diseases.